ЕГЭ Экзаменационная работа по английскому языку состоит из четырёх разделов («Аудирование», «Чтение», «Грамматика и лексика», «Письмо»), включающих в себя 40 заданий.
Пробный вариант составлен на основе официальной демоверсии от ФИПИ за 2021 год.
В конце варианта приведены правильные ответы ко всем заданиям. Вы можете свериться с ними и найти у себя ошибки.
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10. Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
1. Is there any risk-free alternative to tattoo?
2. What equipment is used?
3. What are the motives for getting a tattoo?
4. What is tattoo ink made from?
5. Is getting a tattoo dangerous?
6. What are the most popular tattoo designs?
7. How old is the tattooing tradition?
8. Can tattoos be removed?
A. Tattoos are surprisingly popular in different parts of the globe. The oldest tattooed person, the so-called Iceman in a frozen mummy found in the Alps in 1991. The frozen man, aged more than 5000 years, has 57 tattoos! The scientists think that they were created with some sharp instruments like thorns, and ash from fireplace was used instead of ink. There’s also a theory that Iceman’s tattoos were made for medical reasons rather than for any other reason.
B. Medical tattoos mark the places where acupuncture needles need to be used, however, that reason for getting a tattoo is rare. Tattooing for religious and spiritual reasons happens much more often. Soldiers and sailors get tattoos in memory of their battles and journeys. Some people tattoo the names of those they love, and some get tattoos for no reason at all, just because they think it’s cool.
C. There are lots of tattooing techniques. Some tribes in Africa make cuts on the body and rub ash into them. Tattooists may also work with sharpened sticks or animal bones the procedure is painful and not at all hygienic. In modern studios electric machines are usually used. They have one or more needles that quickly go in and out of the skin. The machine has ink containers and the ink gets into the skin via the needles. For safety reasons the needles should only be used once.
D. In the past, tattoo ink was made from tree bark, ash and coal dust. Later, pen ink was often used. Today, the inks produced by factories are usually made of metal salts and metal oxides. Heavy metals are used for colouring too: cadmium gives red and orange shades, aluminum – green and violet, cobalt – blue, titanium – white. There’s no need to say that heavy metals may cause allergies and some far more serious diseases, cancer included
E. Parents may get outraged by their children’s desire for tattoos and they’ve got good reasons to get panicky – apart from ink related risks, getting tattoos is associated with the risk of infection. Anything from skin infections to tube culosis and even AIDS can be transmitted via the instruments. If the tattooist ignores strict hygienic requirements, like using fresh ink for each session, changingloves after each stage of tattooing or disinfecting the furniture, the client may catch a very serious disease.
F. Another reason against permanent tattoos is… their permanent character. You may like it now but people tend to change their preferences. A safe alternative is a temporary tattoo which lasts for only a few weeks. Their main advantage is that the skin is not damaged – the tattoo artist just applies henna on it. This type of tattoos is popular with fashion models who care for their bodies and don’t want them to get damaged.
G. The actress Amy Taylor says that she got her tattoo when she was sixteen. She thought it was cool, but several years later the tattoo became a nuisance. Amy wanted to get it removed. She believed that modern technologies like laser treatment could do it easily but the doctors warned her that the tattoo wouldn’t be fully removed anyway. The treatment is usually long, expensive and rather painful – getting the tattoo is much easier.